Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/, from the Greek: φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of thesounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs.

The field of phonetics is a multilayered subject of linguistics that focuses on speech. In the case of oral languages there are three basic areas of study:

  • Articulatory phonetics: the study of the production of speech sounds by the articulatory and vocal tract by the speaker.
  • Acoustic phonetics: the study of the physical transmission of speech sounds from the speaker to the listener.
  • Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.

Auditory phonetics: the study of the reception and perception of speech sounds by the listener.

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally focused largely on study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and is therefore also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover anylinguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rhyme, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages.

The word phonology (as in the phonology of English) can also refer to the phonological system (sound system) of a given language. This is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax and its vocabulary.

A Manual of English Phonetics and Phonology: Twelve Lessons with an Integrated Course in Phonetic Transcription

English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course

Approaches to Phonological Complexity (Phonology and Phonetics)

An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics)

Introducing Phonetics and Phonology

Phonetically Based Phonology

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